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  Indian J Med Microbiol
 

Figure 1: Timeline of the advancement of technologies and the discovery of key genes involved in ASS. Various technological developments were highlighted, which contributed significantly, as well as the discovery of candidate genes of mutations causing ASS according to the timeline. ASS: acephalic spermatozoa syndrome; Hook1: hook microtubule tethering protein 1; Prss21: serine protease 21; Oaz3: ornithine decarboxylase antizyme 3; Cntrob: centrobin, centriole duplication and spindle assembly protein; Ift88: intraflagellar transport 88; CRISPR/Cas9: clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated 9; Odf1: outer dense fiber of sperm tails 1; Spata6: spermatogenesis associated 6; SUN5: Sad1 and UNC84 domain containing 5; PMFBP1: polyamine-modulated factor 1 binding protein 1; TSGA10: testis-specific gene antigen 10; BDRT: bromodomain testis-specific protein; DNAH6: dynein axonemal heavy chain 6; CEP112: centrosomal protein 112.

Figure 1: Timeline of the advancement of technologies and the discovery of key genes involved in ASS. Various technological developments were highlighted, which contributed significantly, as well as the discovery of candidate genes of mutations causing ASS according to the timeline. ASS: acephalic spermatozoa syndrome; <i>Hook1</i>: hook microtubule tethering protein 1; <i>Prss21</i>: serine protease 21; <i>Oaz3</i>: ornithine decarboxylase antizyme 3; <i>Cntrob</i>: centrobin, centriole duplication and spindle assembly protein; <i>Ift88</i>: intraflagellar transport 88; CRISPR/Cas9: clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated 9; <i>Odf1</i>: outer dense fiber of sperm tails 1; <i>Spata6</i>: spermatogenesis associated 6; <i>SUN5</i>: Sad1 and UNC84 domain containing 5; <i>PMFBP1</i>: polyamine-modulated factor 1 binding protein 1; <i>TSGA10:</i> testis-specific gene antigen 10; <i>BDRT</i>: bromodomain testis-specific protein; <i>DNAH6</i>: dynein axonemal heavy chain 6; <i>CEP112</i>: centrosomal protein 112.