Testicular sperm extraction (TESE) outcomes in the context of malignant disease: a systematic review
Ludmilla Ogouma1, Isabelle Berthaut1,2, Rachel Lévy1,2, Rahaf Haj Hamid1, Marie Prades1, Marie Audouin3, Nathalie Sermondade1,2, Charlotte Dupont1,2
1 Fertility Center (Service de Biologie de la Reproduction CECOS), Tenon Hospital (AP-HP, Sorbonne-Université), Paris F-75020, France
2 Sorbonne University, Saint Antoine Research Center, Inserm US938, Paris F-75012, France
3 Fertility Center, Diaconesses Hospital, Paris F-75012, France
Fertility Center (Service de Biologie de la Reproduction CECOS), Tenon Hospital (AP-HP, Sorbonne-Université), Paris F-75020; Sorbonne University, Saint Antoine Research Center, Inserm US938, Paris F-75012
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Advances in the oncology field have led to improved survival rates. Consequently, quality of life after remission is anticipated, which includes the possibility to conceive children. Since cancer treatments are potentially gonadotoxic, fertility preservation must be proposed. Male fertility preservation is mainly based on ejaculated sperm cryopreservation. When this is not possible, testicular sperm extraction (TESE) may be planned. To identify situations in which TESE has been beneficial, a systematic review was conducted. The search was carried out on the PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and CISMeF databases from 1 January 2000 to 19 March 2020. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) recommendations were followed in selecting items of interest. Thirty-four articles were included in the systematic review, including 15 articles on oncological testicular sperm extraction (oncoTESE), 18 articles on postgonadotoxic treatment TESE and 1 article on both oncoTESE and postgonadotoxic treatment TESE. Testicular sperm freezing was possible for 42.9% to 57.7% of patients before gonadotoxic treatment and for 32.4% to 75.5% of patients after gonadotoxic treatment, depending on the type of malignant disease. Although no formal conclusion could be drawn about the chances to obtain sperm in specific situations, our results suggest that TESE can be proposed before and after gonadotoxic treatment. Before treatment, TESE is more often proposed for men with testicular cancer presenting with azoospermia since TESE can be performed simultaneously with tumor removal or orchiectomy. After chemotherapy, TESE may be planned if the patient presents with persistent azoospermia.