Table of Contents  
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 24  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 677

Commentary on “Penile augmentation with injectable hyaluronic acid gel: an alternative choice for small penis syndrome”

Department of Surgery, Section of Urology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA

Date of Submission30-Jan-2022
Date of Acceptance14-Feb-2022
Date of Web Publication15-Apr-2022

Correspondence Address:
Omer A Raheem
Department of Surgery, Section of Urology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/aja202214

Rights and Permissions

How to cite this article:
Xing M, Raheem OA. Commentary on “Penile augmentation with injectable hyaluronic acid gel: an alternative choice for small penis syndrome”. Asian J Androl 2022;24:677

How to cite this URL:
Xing M, Raheem OA. Commentary on “Penile augmentation with injectable hyaluronic acid gel: an alternative choice for small penis syndrome”. Asian J Androl [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Nov 29];24:677. Available from:

We read with special interest the study by Zhang et al.[1] regarding hyaluronic acid penile augmentation for patients with small penis syndrome (SPS). Utilization of hyaluronic acid (HA)-based injections as dermal filler has become increasingly popular in the past decade.[2] For patients who have small penis syndrome, a body dysmorphic disorder in which the patients believe they have a small penis, HA injections present a noninvasive option for penile size augmentation. Current literature on this procedure is sparse, and the findings and experiences reported in Zhang et al.[1] are indeed promising in the context of SPS.

The authors conducted a robust retrospective analysis of 38 patients who underwent HA injection penile augmentation between 2017 and 2020. Follow-up data were collected for 1 year (1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months) and included physical outcomes (flaccid and erect penile length and girth) and psychological measures (Index of Male Genital Image [IMGI], International Index of Erectile Function [IIEF], and Beliefs About Penis Size [BAPS] scales).[1] There was significant increase from baseline in both flaccid and erect length and girth measurements over all follow-up visits. The 1-month follow-up demonstrated the most pronounced increases in girth and length, at 3.41 ± 0.95 cm (P < 0.01) and 2.55 ± 0.55 cm (P < 0.01), respectively. Increase in penis size decreased after the first follow-up but remained above baseline. There was also significant improvement in IMGI, BAPS, and IMGI subscale (sexual desire, intercourse satisfaction, and overall satisfaction) scores. Interestingly, these subjective scores remained relatively stable throughout follow-up, demonstrating long-term psychological benefits, even though objective penile measurements began to decrease. This decrease is attributed to the 8absorption of HA into the surrounding tissue. Recently developed fillers with enhanced viscosity and cohesivity, and thus longer half-lives, provide increased injection longevity up to 18 months.[3] Reinjection of HA fillers after size decrease has also been considered, but there are no studies that explicitly examine the implications of reinjection.[4]

It is paramount to mention that the results reported herein by Zhang et al.[1] suggest that HA injections can be a safe and effective solution for patients with SPS. The positive physical outcomes, duration of such outcomes, and mild postoperative complications such as edema and subcutaneous bleeding are consistent with existing literature.[3],[4],[5],[6] Similarly, the psychologic measures were congruent with those found in Yang et al.,[7] the only other study to measure patient psychologic burden to our knowledge.

Traditionally, multiple strategies have been employed for esthetic penile augmentation, including HA injection as documented above, vacuum pumps, penile extenders, and various surgical interventions such as ligament dissection and dermal fat grafts.[1] In comparison to noninvasive treatments, HA injections are often considered longer-lasting and more convenient. Critically, the authors explained when compared to surgical penile augmentation procedures, HA injection is a less invasive treatment modality with lower morbidity.[1]

Finally, as we witness increased demand for esthetic penile augmentation worldwide, we believe the authors of this article provided a timely and robust longitudinal analysis of their own experience with HA injections in the context of SPS - with the inherited limitations of ambiguous indications for SPS treatment, lack of a standard treatment algorithm, and the preexistent knowledge gap in HA safety and efficacy. In conclusion, the use of HA injections is not a permanent solution; however, it can be a viable temporary option for men with SPS. Long-term safety and effectiveness data of HA injections where patient satisfaction and objective penile measurements, as measured end points, are greatly warranted as the urologic community begins to accept, disseminate, and offer such treatment.

  Competing Interests Top

Both authors declare no competing interests.

  References Top

Zhang CL, Quan Y, Li H, Li Q, Bai WJ, et al. Penile augmentation with injectable hyaluronic acid gel: an alternative choice for small penis syndrome. Asian J Androl 2022; Doi: 10.4103/aja20223. [Online ahead of print].  Back to cited text no. 1
Vandeputte J. Real-world experience with volume augmentation using cohesive polydensified matrix hyaluronic acid gel: a retrospective single-center analysis of 110 consecutive patients with medium- to long-term follow-up. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol 2018; 11: 30–9.  Back to cited text no. 2
Ahn ST, Shim JS, Bae WJ, Kim SW, Kim JJ, et al. Efficacy and safety of penile girth enhancement using hyaluronic acid filler and the clinical impact on ejaculation: a multi-center, patient/evaluator-blinded, randomized active-controlled trial. World J Mens Health 2022; 40: 299–307.  Back to cited text no. 3
Kim JJ, Kwak TI, Jeon BG, Cheon J, Moon DG. Human glans penis augmentation using injectable hyaluronic acid gel. Int J Impot Res 2003; 15: 439–43.  Back to cited text no. 4
Kwak TI, Oh M, Kim JJ, Moon du G. The effects of penile girth enhancement using injectable hyaluronic acid gel, a filler. J Sex Med 2011; 8: 3407–13.  Back to cited text no. 5
Quan Y, Gao ZR, Dai X, Kuang L, Zhang M, et al. Complications and management of penile augmentation with hyaluronic acid injection. Asian J Androl 2021; 23: 392–5.  Back to cited text no. 6
Yang DY, Jeong HC, Ahn ST, Bae WJ, Moon DG, et al. A comparison between hyaluronic acid and polylactic acid filler injections for temporary penile augmentation in patients with small penis syndrome: a multicenter, patient/evaluator-blind, comparative, randomized trial. J Sex Med 2020; 17: 133–41.  Back to cited text no. 7


Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

  In this article
Competing Interests

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded85    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal